Extending the productive life of the field.
In the life of a field, it is critical to understanding past reservoir behavior in order to better predict future behavior and to refine the development program, including injection, additional wells, etc.
In support of this process, 4D seismic analysis is an effective tool to discover what was drained and what is left to be drained, comparing signals to the initial 3D survey. The Paradigm® Echos® system reprocesses both surveys with similar parameters and compares seismic volumes. Furthermore, the unique Paradigm neural network classifier highlights variations that may relate to pore content.
For fields that were put into production many years ago, seismic data at the time may not have had the benefit of today's technologies to create an accurate picture of the reservoir's shape. Paradigm offers solutions that help improve the structural image of the reservoir. Reprocessing in depth and accounting for anisotropy effects, especially in complex areas, can provide important insights for guiding small explorations around the main field. Even when actual reprocessing or depth imaging is not deemed necessary, a more accurate depth conversion based on a detailed velocity model, including anisotropy, can make a great impact, for example, when planning horizontal wells.
It is also important to understand compartmentalization by sub-seismic faults. The Paradigm integrated suite enables water saturation height modeling in different wells in Geolog®, or contact definition and distance to fault information from well tests with Interpret®. This information can be assembled in a 3D environment along a 3D structural model, including fault seal potential, to assess compartments or the presence of sub-seismic faults.
Similarly, understanding sand correlation provides additional insight into reservoir behavior. The Paradigm well correlation module integrates geological and production data and a 3D view of pressure, temperature evolution and response to injection.
Paradigm provides tools for assisted history matching, which first ensures that all required faults and stratigraphic complexities have been consistently modeled, and then builds the reservoir model with all information, including conceptual geological models, seismic derived information and well data. Reservoir engineers can then sample, simulate and compare all potential models to history production in order to select future production hypotheses.
Take a good look around before decommissioning.
During production decline, when the cost of production exceeds the value of what is produced, relinquishment becomes a realistic scenario. Before moving ahead with this plan and ultimately decommissioning the surface production facilities, it makes sense to take another look at the data and ensure that a possibility for additional production is not overlooked in the reservoir or even from satellite structures, un-drained pockets or a formation with residual amounts of hydrocarbons. A complete suite of tools from Paradigm provides a cost-effective and exhaustive approach to revisiting any aspect of the existing subsurface model, and rapidly expands the interpretation to neighboring areas without tying down important resources for long periods of time. The task is easier with a flexible data infrastructure that incorporates all accessible data.