Reduce drilling risk through advanced velocity determination, modeling, and imaging.


Explorationists rely on the Paradigm® GeoDepth® velocity determination and 3D/2D velocity model building system to create accurate seismic imaging in either time or depth. Through the integration of interpretation, velocity analysis, model building and updating, model validation, depth imaging, and time-to-depth conversion, GeoDepth provides the continuity needed to produce high-quality, interpretable images consistent with other available data, while preventing data loss and honoring geologic constraints.

The complete set of interactive and batch velocity analysis tools available in GeoDepth handles the full range of seismic imaging problems encountered around the globe. GeoDepth supports seismic surveys for every type of geological structure in the world, from 2D and 3D marine and land surveys, to narrow and wide-azimuth acquisition geometries. The solution helps reduce drilling risk in subsurface geological structures like fault shadow, subsalt, sub-basalt, salt flanks, reefs, gas plumes, thrust faults and subtle lateral velocity variations.

Post-stack and pre-stack data and corresponding interpretation in GeoDepth

GeoDepth features include:

  • A library of 2D and 3D, ray and wave equation-based isotropy and anisotropy models, for accurate simulation of wave propagation in complex subsurface areas
  • Full support for anisotropic velocity model determinations, including vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) and tilted axis of symmetry (TTI). Enhanced anisotropy tools ensure accurate models and the best positioning for reservoir targets.
  • Efficient, cluster-based gather processing that performs velocity determination in all geophysical domains. This includes semblance file creation for moveout analysis, automatic velocity and residual velocity picking, and automatic flattening and stacking.
  • An intuitive, wizard-driven user interface that assures a short learning curve and full control over the velocity analysis process.
  • Proprietary methods for RMO extraction, including vector-based, trace-by-trace, automatic RMO picking. Parabolic and higher order RMO parameters may be extracted by using semblance profiles or AVO attributes (the Paradigm FastVel add-on module).
  • GeoDepth can use velocity volumes, geological formation volumes, and dip/azimuth volumes created in SKUA in illumination, grid tomography and migrations, and RTM modeling workflows. 
  • Interpretation data can be seamlessly shared between SKUA-GOCAD and GeoDepth.
  • New 2D Canvas enabling simultaneous visualization of time and depth prestack and poststack data.
  • Full workflow for Offset Vector Tile (OVT) gathers (prestack data), enabling sectorization of OVT gathers, imported or created using the Paradigm Kirchhoff migration, which can then be used as input to 3D Tomography or AVAZ/VVAZ
  • Seamless access to third-party databases and the Paradigm product suite through the Epos interoperability integration framework.

Comprehensive solutions = reduced drilling risk

GeoDepth combines the explorationist’s regional knowledge of subsurface geology with seismic imaging and velocity model tools to efficiently create an accurate earth model. Its advanced QC and visualization tools enhance the understanding of depth uncertainty. And with the efficiency of these tools, asset teams can dramatically increase their productivity. The full range of GeoDepth capabilities includes:

  • Velocity estimation and analysis, for accurate model determination. The Velocity Navigator interface supports a model-based velocity analysis method for structure-dependent regimes, a grid-based approach for a structure-independent environment, or a combination of both. Constrained Velocity Inversion (CVI) enables creation of a smooth and physically credible velocity model, using sparse vertical functions as input.
  • Model building: GeoDepth builds initial background models efficiently and in a geologically constrained manner using advanced techniques. These include coherency and stacking velocity inversions for ray-based layer stripping in areas of complex geology, and a constrained velocity inversion solution for sedimentary basins with moderate lateral velocity variation (particularly useful in compactional settings).
  • Model validation and updating: GeoDepth provides the tools and workflows for efficiently refining the velocity model. Fast and accurate, innovative tomographic techniques update isotropic and anistropic velocity models and ensure geologically plausible models. Velocity model updating is performed in either GeoDepth CVI or GeoDepth Seismic Tomography.
  • Mapping and modeling: GeoDepth offers flexible geomodeling technologies, from simple, map-based solutions through more complex, surface-based applications, up to true 3D modeling capabilities in the SKUA suite of products. SKUA model-building tools enable easy construction of 2D and 3D solid models, regardless the complexity of the structural geology.

GeoDepth add-on modules

  • The FastVel add-on module uses AVO attributes to extract parabolic and higher order RMO parameters. Methods for extraction include vector-based, trace-by-trace, and automatic RMO picking.
  • EarthStudy 360 Illuminator provides previously unattainable knowledge about ray propagation in complex areas. The add-on module uses an enhanced, interactive ray tracking technology to quantify the relationship between the surface acquisition geometry and the subsurface angles in targeted areas.
  • 3D prestack and poststack time and depth migrations ensure speed in velocity model updating and accuracy for final imaging. Modules include flexible, target-oriented Kirchhoff migrations and high-end imaging options such as Wavefront Reconstruction, CRAM, and Common Shot Wave Equation Migrations (WEM). Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is available within the Echos seismic data processing and analysis system.
  • Investigative full wave elastic modeling - a forward modeling utility that simulates wave propagation in the sub-surface, in order to validate structural models and provide a better understanding of the seismic response (confirmation of fluids and lithologies).  This tool supports acoustic/elastic modeling modes, with/without attenuation (viscosity) and isotropic/VTI media. Outputs include single shot, VSPs and snapshots.

System Requirements

Interoperability Options
All Epos-based applications enable interoperability with third-party data stores, including:

  • OpenWorks® R5000
  • GeoFrame® 2012
  • JavaSeis