Geology

A better geological foundation means a better production result.

From well correlation to structural framework construction, 2D and 3D restoration, and fault seal analysis, The Paradigm® SKUA-GOCAD™ product suite offers geologic interpretation and validation combined with unparalleled structural and stratigraphic modeling. Given the correct structural and depositional context, SKUA-GOCAD will help your team create property models that match geological concepts and honor all available data. Uncertainties are accounted for every step of the way.


Sub-surface modeling

The SKUA-GOCAD Basin Modeling module provides users with the ability to construct structural models, from the overburden to the basement. SKUA-GOCAD enables the construction of 4D basin models for transfer to basin model simulation software by:

  • Simplifying the creation of a consistent structural model
  • Empowering the construction of special grids for basin modeling
  • Sequential 3D restoration of the 3D volume
  • Sequential restoration of the basin grids from the present date to the depositional time
     

Structure and stratigraphy

The ability to rapidly create a fully sealed structural model, whatever the geologic complexity, is the most important piece of any seismic-to-simulation workflow. The unique technology in SKUA provides structure and stratigraphy capabilities in a user-friendly, highly advanced computing environment.

SKUA structure and stratigraphy provides:

  • Automatic structural framework construction
  • A fully sealed structural model, yielding the most accurate models
  • No limitations to the complexity of the models, ensuring none of your data is left out

2D/3D restoration

  • 2D cross section restoration:  Used to restore 2D seismic interpretations in places where the seismic signal is poor, in order to validate interpretation. It is also used to validate in the main direction of deformation in a 3D interpretation prior to full 3D volume restoration.
  • 2D surface restoration:  Flattens a series of 3D horizons, while keeping the surface area constant and minimizing deformation. This tool allows the validation of fault contact geometry and fold geometry. Multi-surface restoration can be used to understand the evolution of the basin, in particular that of salt geometry.
  • 3D kinematic restoration:  Uses the SKUA-GOCAD unstructured mesh to easily perform 3D restoration of the current model, using a geo-mechanical finite element technique. Removing the need to construct a series of finite element models, each layer of the 3D model can be sequentially restored. Along with restoration of the 3D structural model, a basin grid can be restored to create a 4D basin grid, in order to study basin maturity and fluid migrations.
     

Well correlation and cross-sectioning

SKUA-GOCAD well correlation tools allow the geologist to create well sections showing many different type of tracks, digitize markers in different domains (TVT, TST, flatten), and correlate markers with ghosting. Elevation and thickness maps are updated automatically, and everything communicates with the 3D viewer. Correlations can also be done inside geological cross sections with additional tools to digitize and paint conceptual geological models.
 

Fault seal analysis

Given a structural framework constructed in SKUA, fault displacement maps, fault juxtaposition maps, and fault SGR properties can be computed. A new attribute weighted SGR which takes into account the smearing potential of a facies is also available.
 

Facies analysis

Given a stratigraphic framework constructed in SKUA, geologists can perform paleo-facies interpretation on any chrono-stratigraphic time slice from well facies. Vertical facies trends and stratigraphic trend maps can be interpreted and manipulated to create a full 3D facies volume for use later by the reservoir engineer.

Geomechanical analysis

Given a structural framework constructed in SKUA, geologists can look at fracture probability, as well as stress and strain information. The stress/strain information can be computed from the SKUA UVT Transform® or from 3D kinematic restoration. In addition, a geomechanical mesh can be constructed from a SKUA-GOCAD model, initialized with properties directly in SKUA-GOCAD, exported to Abaqus for deformation analysis, and re-imported in SKUA-GOCAD to transpose properties to other objects like reservoir simulation grids.

Fault/fracture/dip structural analysis

Any data that carries an orientation (e.g. fault surface, marker, points with dip/azimuth information), can be plotted in a stereonet. The application includes three plotting areas: the stereonet diagram where data is plotted as poles or planes in a Schmidt or Wulff projection, and two rose diagrams to respectively display the dip and azimuth as circular histograms. You can interactively select data in the stereonet by using multiple selection tools, including predefined shape selection and freehand selection to create different families.