Quantitative Seismic Interpretation (QSI)
Integrate QSI workflows early in the G&G cycle to reduce uncertainty
The integration of early quantitative seismic interpretation (QSI) into the seismic interpretation process is one of the most effective methods for reducing uncertainty in the long term. Adding QSI to daily interpretation work can help companies thrive, even in challenging economic conditions.
Quantitative Seismic Interpretation modules are directly integrated into the interpretation platform. They benefit from a high-definition viewer, and direct access to data stored in Emerson's Epos™
-based data repositories.
Emerson QSI quantifies the relevant parameters of the subsurface for each rock unit within the geometrical interpretation framework. Our technology provides answers to questions about rock type, lithology, reservoir properties, fluid fill, elastic properties, and geomechanical properties, and help you better evaluate your probability of drilling success.
The workflow traditionally begins with prestack migrated data organized in offset/angle gathers or angle stack volumes. The user reviews and conditions the data in Emerson's 2D Canvas for detailed work, or 3D Canvas for more integrated interpretation. Both windows provide attractive functionalities for this, including a comprehensive set of dedicated algorithms for pre-conditioning the data, an interactive framework for running the process, and an advanced platform for visualizing and analyzing the results.
AVO/AVAz inversion and analysis (previously Probe)
A central component of QSI is AVO inversion and analysis, which is the leading seismic amplitude analysis technology for direct hydrocarbon detection. Integrating AVO into the interpretation workflow adds information about rock and fluid properties to the knowledge acquired in seismic surveys, enhancing understanding of the reservoir and lowering exploration risk. Emerson QSI offers the level of integration, qualification and analysis needed by geoscientists to confidently use seismic amplitudes to identify quality prospects, clearly delineate reservoirs, and characterize reservoir properties.
Features of AVO/AVAZ Inversions
- On-the-fly and batch prestack pre-conditioning
- Wavelet and stretching
- Automatic residual moveout corrections (isotropic and anisotropic)
- Prestack amplitude calibration
- Optimization and QC of AVO/inversion workflow parameters
- Complete workflow for multi-azimuth AVO analysis for anisotropy and fracture detection
- Advanced QC feasibility analysis tools, enabling a thorough investigation into the effects of acquisition geometry, structure and pre-processing on AVO analysis
- Direct links to interpretation and well log data stores
- Rock physics module enabling the creation or calibration of rock physics models, to generate missing logs or perform fluid substitution.
- Advanced synthetics utility for calibrating multiple wells with seismic data, for extracting wavelets, and for rock physics modeling
- Wedge/2D forward modeling, giving users the option to play the “what if” game (structure, fluid and porosity), and accurately assess their prospect
- Crossplotting, designed to analyze multi-attribute seismic data and multi-attribute rock properties, and to integrate well logs and seismic data in crossplot space
- Unique, 3D model-based AVO modeling away from the well bore
Seismic amplitude inversions (previously Vanguard)
The Emerson QSI system integrates seismic, well and geological data to produce a comprehensive description of reservoir properties, including impedances, porosities, saturations and lithology. A full set of traditional and innovative inversion techniques enables the user to select the right technology for each project. The system is specifically designed to support the interpretation of multiple attributes simultaneously, for enhanced efficiency and ease of use.
Features of Seismic Inversions
- Seismic attribute technology: Includes complex trace attributes, geometric attributes, multi-attribute analysis and interpretation tools, and multi-attribute, statistical analysis tools
- Intuitive, easy-to-use log window
- Advanced synthetics: Direct calibration of multiple wells with seismic data in a multi-attribute interpretation environment
- Geostatistical model building: Detailed high-resolution models that integrate well log data with interpretation, velocity and seismic data in a complex geological framework
- Colored inversion: Fast track inversion using seismic data and well data frequency spectrum to invert data and output relative acoustic impedance
- Simultaneous elastic impedance inversion: Using a variety of unique techniques, seismic and AVO data are inverted to produce a broad set of attributes, including P and S impedances, Elastic Impedance, λ*ρ and µ*ρ, Poisson’s Ratio, and density
- Modified Stochastic Inversion (MSI): An innovative approach to an old problem. MSI is a completely new approach to stochastic inversion, enabling the creation of multiple high frequency realizations of the reservoir that match all available data, including seismic.
- 4D cross-equalization of a multi-vintage dataset in 4D exploration using neural network technology
- Full-functionality depth workflow for colored inversion and Prestack Maximum Likelihood Inversion (PMLI), including well log calibration
- Simultaneous multi-attribute neural network inversion to convert seismic data directly into rock properties
- Wedge/2D forward modeling (see above under AVO/AVAz inversion and analysis).
- Crossplotting: Designed to analyze multi-attribute seismic data and multi-attribute rock properties, and to integrate well logs and seismic data in crossplot space
- Crossplot lithoseismic classification, from prestack inversion results to seismic lithofacies probability volumes, enabling geoscientists to quantify uncertainty in lithofacies and fluid prediction
- Full integration into the SeisEarth interpretation system makes QSI easily accessible to the interpreter, with all data readily available throughout the workflow.
- Efficient use of azimuthal data leads to effective fracture detection.
- QSI workflows provide more information from available seismic data, enabling enhanced reservoir model quality.
- AVO and amplitude inversion directly from prestack data with interactive, on-the-fly preconditioning results in fast, high- quality, detailed understanding of the seismic AVO response.
- The Modified Stochastic Inversion implementation offers fast performance and can uniquely use complex stratigraphy.
- A high level of interactivity reduces decision-making time and improves prediction accuracy.
- An extensive QC toolbox delivers better quality results.
- A depth workflow provides fast and precise characterization of depth migrated seismic data.
- Inversion algorithms can run on Linux clusters, for high productivity.
Flexible QSI Packaging
Emerson QSI solution packages have been configured specifically for different data characterization goals. For the interpreter, the QSI-RFP (Rock and Fluid Properties)
package is aimed at providing deeper insight into the subsurface, for enhanced understanding of the impact of lithology and fluid on seismic data.
Major features of the QSI-RFP package include:
For those who wish to go beyond interpretation, a QSI-RFP for Reservoir Geophysics
package enables users to dig deeper into their data using techniques such as AVO, elastic inversion and automatic residual moveout analysis and correction.
The QSI-RFP package for Reservoir Geophysics includes all of the features in the QSI-RFP package, plus:
- AVO inversion and analysis
- Seismic amplitude inversions (poststack and prestack)
- Velocity analysis with FastVel™
- Machine learning to correlate logs and seismic data
- Crossplot-based lithoseismic classification
- Seismic attributes
- Stochastic refinement
For specialists who need to characterize unconventional and other fractured reservoirs, Emerson offers the QSI-AzFP (Azimuthal Analysis of Fracture Properties)
is a comprehensive system for performing azimuthal analysis of Fracture Properties, providing accurate information about the orientation, intensity and density of fracture/tectonic-stress systems.
Major features in QSI-AzFP include:
- Azimuthal-dependent residual moveout analysis (FastVel/VVAZ) and amplitude variation (AVAZ) analysis for automated extraction of azimuthally dependent attributes
- Support for full azimuth (OVT) gathers, sectored (OVT) gathers, and full-azimuth reflectivity gathers (EarthStudy 360™) for analysis
- Customizable vector map displays
- Includes FastVel and full-azimuth AVA analysis, and gather conditioning
The QSI-PPP (Pore Pressure Prediction)
package includes a comprehensive set of tools for performing pore pressure analysis using wellbore data and/or seismic velocities, to enable users to generate pressure prediction profiles and 3D volumes.
Major features in QSI-PPP include:
- Geolog-PPP for 1D pore pressure prediction analysis based on well data
- A comprehensive set of tools for obtaining high-resolution seismic velocities (FastVel and CVI)
- Geostatistical volume creation to generate 3D volumes from 1D logs
- A workflow-guided application that takes the user through all the steps needed to generate pressure and pressure gradient volumes from seismic velocities
- Deliverables include: hydrostatic pressure, overburden pressure, normal compaction trend, pore pressure, fracture pressure, vertical effective stress and horizontal effective stress